Voice Over NR (VoNR Call Flow)

We are seeing 5G Stand Alone (SA) data services are rolling out throughout the world, it is very much essential for MNOs to provide services such as Voice/Video calls. To […]

5G RAN and 5GC Network Slice Signaling

Network Slicing is considered as one of the key feature by 3GPP in 5G.  A network slice can be looked as a logical end-to-end network that can be dynamically created. […]

Cloud RAN Orchestration and Management

The Orchestration and management for Cloud RAN (cRAN) is consist of a suite of Orchestration and OSS systems, including AI/ML advanced analytics systems, to automate the end-to-end service lifecycle starting […]

Open RAN Integration – Where We Today

Open RAN is being deployed by multiple Service Providers around the world. These deployment are large scale deployments in some of the largest countries in the world. In Open RAN […]

3GPP Evolution for MIMO

Released 3GPP standards on MIMO are shown in below image. As you know, Coordinated Multipoint (CoMP) is a type of Cooperative MIMO, in which data and channel state information (CSI) are […]

5G NR – Msg2 Random Access Response (RAR) – SA Mode

In 5G NR,  the initial access include down-link synchronisation and up-link synchronisation procedures. Downlink synchronisation can be achieved after decoding Minimum System Information (SSB-MIB) and Remaining System Inforatmion (RMSI- SIB […]