Voice Over NR (VoNR Call Flow)

We are seeing 5G Stand Alone (SA) data services are rolling out throughout the world, it is very much essential for MNOs to provide services such as Voice/Video calls. To […]

5G RAN and 5GC Network Slice Signaling

Network Slicing is considered as one of the key feature by 3GPP in 5G.  A network slice can be looked as a logical end-to-end network that can be dynamically created. […]

5GNR 2-Step RACH

In Earlier versions of NR  3GPP Releases i.e. Rel.15, There was only one type of RACH procedure was defined, which is similar to LTE RACH procedure also known as 4-Step […]

Open Midhaul F1 Interface F1-C and F1-U

The F1 interface connects a gNB CU to a gNB DU. This interface is applicable to the CU-DU Split gNB architecture. The control plane of the F1 (F 1-C) allows […]

5G Authentication and Key Management 5G-AKA

Secure communication in any cellular network can be achieved with help of AKA procedure.  AKA is Authentication and Key Management procedure which involve mutual authentication between User Device and the […]

Open RAN Management Plane (M-plane) for Open Radio Unit

In ORAN, the O-RU management functions to set parameters are done over the M-Plane. The management functions includes O-RU software management,  fault management etc. Regarding this, O-RAN fronthaul specifications prescribe […]

O-RAN Interview Questions

In this post, we have put most asked interview questions about Open RAN/O-RAN in various Telecom Companies/Service Provider who are developing Open RAN systems. What is Open RAN, OpenRAN and […]