5G NR RLC – AM Mode Data Transmission

In 5G NR, RLC has 3 different modes of operations TM, UM and AM and each of the mode can transmit and receive data, serving different logical channels as per […]

Open RAN (O-RAN) Reference Architecture

The O-RAN Reference Architecture is designed to enable next generation RAN infrastructures. It is designed with the principles of intelligence and openness, the O-RAN architecture is the foundation for building […]

What parameters impact the EVM of transmitter chain ?

The error vector magnitude or EVM is a measure used to quantify the performance of a digital radio transmitter or receiver. A signal sent by an ideal transmitter or received by a receiver would have all constellation […]

3GPP Release 12

3 GPP Release 12 was largely completed on-time in March 2015, with a few exceptional features allowed an extension to later in the year. Release 12 builds on the innovations in […]

LTE Base Station Classifications

As per 3GPP reference 36.104 release 12, there are four classes for the base stations based on the rated power is listed below S.No. 3GPP Base station Class Rated O/p […]

IoT Access Technologies

IoT Access Technology is spread across licensed and unlicensed spectrum and there are several number of Radio technologies.At high these access can be classified in two categories: Non –Cellular Technologies […]