5G NR BFR – Beam Failure Recovery

The 5G communication specially at higher frequencies or mmWave is using Massive MIMO with Beamforming. Beamforming is a signal processing technique that allows gNB send targeted beams of data to […]

Kubernetes – Kubectl working and Common Commands

Kubectl is the command line configuration tool to interact with Kubernetes clusters using Kubernetes API server. kubectl allows users to create, inspect, update, and delete Kubernetes objects. Kubectl Charctersitisc  Kubectl […]

5G NAS – Authentication Failures Cause Values

In 5G Network, Non-access stratum (NAS) layer managed the PLMN specfic Network Failure and Authentication Failures between the 5G UE and 5G Core. Mutual authentication is a mandatory security procedure […]

5G NAS – Registration Reject Cause

In 5G NR, Registration is a NAS layer or 5G Mobility Management (5GMM) process and it is very much similar to the Attach Process in LTE except some of the […]

Lawful Intercept (LI) in 5G System

For any Service Provider/Wireless Operator Lawful Interception (LI) is one of the must satisfy regulatory requirements and a legal obligation towards the Law Enforcement Agencies and Government Authorities. Lawful Intercept […]

VoNR with Robust Header Compression (ROHC)

Voice Service in 5G SA, VoNR can use ROHC to compress the headers of voice packets. ROHC helps reduce header overheads of voice packets on radio links, which helps in […]

5G NR Downlink HARQ Codebook

In 5G NR, 3GPP specification has defined HARQ Codebook  to provide the feedback to base station for Downlink data transmission i.e., PDSCH Data. UE Sends the ACK/NACK for corresponding PDSCH […]

5GNR 2-Step RACH

In Earlier versions of NR  3GPP Releases i.e. Rel.15, There was only one type of RACH procedure was defined, which is similar to LTE RACH procedure also known as 4-Step […]