5G MAC BSR – Buffer Status Reporting

The Buffer Status reporting (BSR) is a MAC layer procedure which is used by the UE to provide information about the amount of data available for transmission in the UL […]

5G NR BFR – Beam Failure Recovery

The 5G communication specially at higher frequencies or mmWave is using Massive MIMO with Beamforming. Beamforming is a signal processing technique that allows gNB send targeted beams of data to […]

5G NR Downlink HARQ Codebook

In 5G NR, 3GPP specification has defined HARQ Codebook  to provide the feedback to base station for Downlink data transmission i.e., PDSCH Data. UE Sends the ACK/NACK for corresponding PDSCH […]

Iperf : A Tool for Network Testing

Iperf or IP performance is a utility for testing network performance and its tuning. It is a cross-platform (windows, linux) tool which can provide standardized measurement results for any network […]

Open RAN Integration – Where We Today

Open RAN is being deployed by multiple Service Providers around the world. These deployment are large scale deployments in some of the largest countries in the world. In Open RAN […]

5G NR RLC – UM Mode Data Transmission

In 5G NR, RLC has 3 different modes of operations TM, UM and AM and each of the mode can transmit and receive data, serving different logical channels as per their requirement. This post provides […]