5G EPS Fallback – 5G to 4G Handover

Introduction A Network Operator providing  5G NR and 4G LTE service, but it may not be possible to have 5G coverage everywhere and at some point when 5G coverage or […]

5G N26 Interface – 5G to 4G Interworking

Introduction N26 interface is an interface which interconnects the 5G Core network function AMF with 4G network node MME and enables interworking between 5G to 4G and visa versa. N26 […]

5G FAPI – Femtocell Application Programming Interface

Introduction FAPI is an interface, which originally meant Femtocell Application Programming Interface defines the interface between MAC-Layer#2 and PHY – Layer#1 for small cells. FAPI is specified by the Small […]

Lawful Intercept (LI) in 5G System

For any Service Provider/Wireless Operator Lawful Interception (LI) is one of the must satisfy regulatory requirements and a legal obligation towards the Law Enforcement Agencies and Government Authorities. Lawful Intercept […]

Voice Over NR (VoNR Call Flow)

We are seeing 5G Stand Alone (SA) data services are rolling out throughout the world, it is very much essential for MNOs to provide services such as Voice/Video calls. To […]

5G RAN and 5GC Network Slice Signaling

Network Slicing is considered as one of the key feature by 3GPP in 5G.  A network slice can be looked as a logical end-to-end network that can be dynamically created. […]

Open Midhaul F1 Interface F1-C and F1-U

The F1 interface connects a gNB CU to a gNB DU. This interface is applicable to the CU-DU Split gNB architecture. The control plane of the F1 (F 1-C) allows […]