Helm – What is it in Telco Cloud ?

In 5G, RAN and Core the whole telecom is moving toward cloudification based on CNFs (Container Network Function) based deployment using Kubernetes (k8s) and MNOs are implemented CI/CD with every […]

5G NR RSRQ Measurements and Its Mapping

The RSRQ (Referece Signal RecivedQuality) is a measurement performed by the UE to know the Quality of recieved Reference Signals. In 5G NR, RSRQ can be measurement for SS-Reference Siganls […]

5G MAC BSR – Buffer Status Reporting

The Buffer Status reporting (BSR) is a MAC layer procedure which is used by the UE to provide information about the amount of data available for transmission in the UL […]

5G NAS Mobility Management – 5GMM

At 5GC, NAS Mobility Management (5GMM) procedures are responsible to keep track whereabouts of the UE, UE authentication and control integrity protection and ciphering. The 5GMM procedures also used by […]

5G NR BFR – Beam Failure Recovery

The 5G communication specially at higher frequencies or mmWave is using Massive MIMO with Beamforming. Beamforming is a signal processing technique that allows gNB send targeted beams of data to […]

Kubernetes – Kubectl working and Common Commands

Kubectl is the command line configuration tool to interact with Kubernetes clusters using Kubernetes API server. kubectl allows users to create, inspect, update, and delete Kubernetes objects. Kubectl Charctersitisc  Kubectl […]

5G NAS – Authentication Failures Cause Values

In 5G Network, Non-access stratum (NAS) layer managed the PLMN specfic Network Failure and Authentication Failures between the 5G UE and 5G Core. Mutual authentication is a mandatory security procedure […]