5G NR and 4G LTE Comparison

5G, Interviews, LTE, Narrow Band IoT, New Radio, NR, RF Basics, TDD LTE

A Short comparison of 5G and 4G technologies is given is table below

Technology Data Rates Latency Mobility Support Spectrum Efficiency Users Density Energy Efficiency
5G (NR) Avg 100 Mb/s Peak 20 Gb/s  ~ 1 ms > 500 Km/h x3 Better
DL- 30 bits/Hz UL- 15bits/Hz
 1000K/square Km x100 Better
4G (LTE) Avg 25 Mb/s Peak 300 Mb/s  ~10- 50 ms Upto 350 Km/h DL – 6 bits/Hz UL- 4 Bits/Hz ~ 2K / square Km Moderate

5G New Radio and 4G LTE Parameter Level Comparison

Parameter 4G Long Term Evolution 5G New Radio
Full Name Long Term Evolution New Radio
3GPP Release Release 8 – Release 14 (LTE, LTE-A, LTE-Pro) Release 15 onward
Frequency Range < 6GHz Upto 52.6 GHz
Services Voice, MBB, IoT Voice, eMBB, Low Latency Application, Massive IoT
Waveform
  • DL: CP -OFDM
  • UL: DFT -S-OFDM
  • DL: CP-OFDM;
  • UL: CP-OFDM, DFT-S-OFDM
Max Carrier Bandwidth 20 MHz
  • Below >6 GHz: 100 MHz;
  • Above6 GHz: 400 MHz
Subcarrier Spacing (SCS) 15 KHz 15 KHz, 30 KHz, 60 KHz, 120 KHz, 240KHz
Cylic Prefix (CP) Normal CP; Extended CP
  • Normal CP for all SCSs;
  • Extended CP for 60KHzs SCS only
Max Number of Subcarriers
Per Carrier
1200 3300
Radio Frame Length 10 ms 10 ms
Slot Size 2/7/14 OFDM symbols 1-14 OFDM symbols (including both slot & mini-slot)
UL/DL Ratio Change
  • Semi-static change with 5ms, 10ms periodicity;
  • Dynamic change per -10ms
  • Semi-static change with 0.5ms, 0.625ms, 1.25ms, 2.5ms, 5ms, 10ms periodicity
  • Dynamic change per 1/2/5/10/20ms change
Synchronization Signals
  • PSS: 62 ZC sequence
  • SSS: 62 m-sequence
  • Periodicity: 5ms
  • PSS: 127 m-sequence
  • SSS: 127 Gold-sequence
  • Periodicity: 20 ms for intial access;{5, 10, 20, 40, 80, 160 } ms for CONNECTED/IDLE mode
PBCH
  • 4-symbol x 72 subcarriers
  • Payload: 40 bits, including CRC bits
  • Periodicity: 10ms
  • 2-symbol x 288 subcarriers;
  • Payload: 56 bits, including CRC bits
  • Periodicity: 20 ms for intial access; {5, 10,20,40,80,160} ms for CONNECTED/IDLE non-standalone cases
SS -block Sweeping 1
  • 4 for <3GHz;
  • 8 for 3-6GHz;
  • 64 for 6-52.6GHz
RACH
  • PRACH: 839 ZC sequence with 1.25 KHz;
  • 4-step RACH
  • Long PRACH: 839 ZC sequence with {15,30,60,120} KHz
  • 4-step RACH
MIMO Transmission
  • Digital beamforming;
  • Diversity Tx:SFBC;
  • Open-loop TX:CDD with precoder
  • Closed-loop TX:Spatial multiplexing
  • Hybrid (analog = digital) beamforming
  • Open-loop Tx: 1-port PC (UE transparent)
  • Closed-loop Tx: Spatial multiplexing
Reference Signals
  • DL:CRS, DMRS, CSI-RS;
  • UL: DMRS, SRS
  • DL: DMRS, PT-RS (Phase tracking RS) CSI-RS, TRS;
  • UL: DMRS, PT-RS, SRS
Channel Coding
  • PBCH/PDCCH; TBCC;
  • PDSCH/PUSCH: Turbo code;
  • PUCCH: RM block code
  • PBCH/PDCCH/PUCCH: Polar code
  • PDSCH/PUSCH: LDPC
PDCCH
  • Multiplexing with data: FDM
  • Tx: Distributed + SFBC
  • Demodulation: CRS
  • Multiplexing with data: TDM/FDM
  • Tx1 Distributed – precoding (UE transparent)
  • Tx2 Localied = precoding (UE transparent)
PUCCH
  • Multiplexing with data: FDM;
  • PUCCH size: 14 OFDM symbols
  • Multiplexing with data: TDM/FDM
  • Long PUCCH size: 4-14 OFDM smbols
  • Short PUCCH size: 1-2 OFDM symbols
HARQ Round-trip Time FDD: 9ms; TDD: ≥ 8ms 0.25-16 ms
Wideband Operations
  • Single Carrier: Up to 20 MHz
  • Full carrier BW initial access & IDLE
  • No UE bandwidth adaptation
  • CA: Up to 32 carriers;
  • DC: Up to 64 carriers
  • Single Carrier: Up to 100 MHz or 400 MHz
  • Narrow-band anchor initial access & IDLE
  • UE bandwidth adaptation allowed
  • CA: Up to 16 carriers;
  • DC: up to 32 carriers
Mobility
  • CRS-based RSRP
  • SSS-based RSRP for cell or beam;
  • CSI-RS based RSRP for beam or transmission point

Table Source : Media-Tek White Paper